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Artist: Kandinsky, Wassily
Size: 6″ x 7.9″
Medium: Woodcut on Japan Paper
Edition: OF 100
Description: Woodcut on Japan paper with Advertisers Text watermark, signed in pencil, from the edition of 100, published/printed for the Fifth Yearbook of the Marées Society/Dr. C. Wolf & Sohn, Münich, with full margins.
Who made the first Western abstract painting? That was the question that Wassily Kandinsky’s widow, accompanied by a team of researchers, set out to answer in 1946. Her late husband, a Russian painter who was among the pioneers of abstraction in the early 1910’s, had himself been personally invested in the answer.
In 1935, Kandinsky had penned a letter to his gallerist in New York to insist on his preeminence. “Indeed,” he wrote of a 1911 work, “it’s the world’s first ever abstract picture, because back then not one single painter was painting in an abstract style. A ‘historic painting’, in other words.”
Kandinsky wasn’t the only artist interested in preserving his legacy. He and several early abstract painters—including Robert Delaunay, Mikhail Larionov, Natalia Goncharova, and Kazimir Malevich—backdated their works, in some cases several years before they were actually completed.
At the turn of the 20th century, the world was becoming increasingly connected. Steamships, cars, and trains facilitated international travel, while telephones, telegraphs, and radios allowed for conversations between people on opposite ends of the globe.
Within the art world specifically, journals sprang up in droves; in Paris alone, some 200 reviews of art and culture appeared in the decade leading up to World War I. Subscribers were scattered across Europe and America, allowing a wide swath of creatives to stay abreast of the latest developments in art. And this period also saw the beginning of a traveling exhibition culture, led by the Italian Futurists.
Similarly, while Kandinsky is today hailed as the father of abstract painting, he was by no means the only player in the development of non-representational painting. His work Komposition V did, admittedly, jumpstart public interest in abstract painting. Exhibited in Munich in December 1911, this monumental work was just barely representational.
It was the first such work to be put on display, and “for some artists and intellectuals, abstraction not only began to seem plausible, but also took on the character of an imperative,” Dickerman writes.
Kandinsky had been thinking about abstract art for years beforehand. His manifesto On the Spiritual in Art, which appeared as a draft in 1909 and was published the same month as Komposition V went on display, laid out the tenets of abstraction. But it would still be several years before Kandinsky would finally break free from recognizable forms in his art. As Chlenova put it, “he theorized abstraction before he made painting.”
But further complicating the question of “first” is that it can be difficult to determine the threshold of abstraction. When, precisely, does a work go from “abstracted” to “abstraction”?
French avant-garde artist Francis Picabia, for example, is sometimes credited with the first abstract painting. His watercolor Caoutchouc (Rubber) was completed in 1909, which would predate even Kandinsky’s theories on abstraction. But other academics have pushed back, noting that the work still retains some semblance of form, reminiscent of a bouquet of flowers.
This is why, she explained, Swedish artist Hilma af Klint was not represented in the MoMA exhibition. Since 2013, when Moderna Museet held the first-ever retrospective of her work, af Klint’s oeuvre has received renewed attention from the public. Known in her lifetime as a landscape painter and portraitist, it was revealed decades after her death that she had also been experimenting with abstraction. As early as 1906, af Klint had been painting colorful works full of organic shapes, spirals, and curlicues.
This date places her several years before Kandinsky even theorized abstraction, let alone acted on his ideas. But af Klint’s works sprang from her interest in the occult—during the 1890s, she started organizing seances with four artist friends where they practiced automatic drawing and writing.
Later, when she began her largest body of non-representational paintings, she claimed that spiritual forces were directing her hand. And for an artist to be included in “Inventing Abstraction,” Chlenova explained, they had to “formulate their practice as a conscious rejection of any reference to the outside world.”
Others disagreed with this reading, arguing that a mystical approach should not negate her contribution to developing abstraction. “‘Spiritual’ is still a very dirty word in the art world,” curator Maurice Tuchman toldthe New York Times in 2013. “When the prejudice against the idea of the spiritual life in af Klint’s work is overcome, which will require scholarship, then perhaps she will really take hold in the broader conversation.”
But there’s no disagreement that the invention of Western abstraction revolutionized art production in the 20th century, nor that it was predated by centuries of abstracted forms and patterns in non-Western traditions.
“One can treat abstraction a little bit more abstractly, if you will,” Chlenova laughed, “without ultimately being too concerned about who was first.”
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Gallery Art is very proud of the many Judaic Art we have in our collection. It is a reminder of the past and of the beautiful future that we have come to. Below is an example of just one of the many talented artists we carry in the gallery:
Artist: Yaacov Agam
Title: Magic Rainbow II (On Gold)
Size : 18″ x 20″
Description: Hand Signed and numbered in pencil. Certificate of Authenticity Included.
For more information on this piece or the many other artists we carry in our gallery please visit GALLART.COM
Rosenquist was born in Grand Forks, N.D. His watercolor of a sunset won him a scholarship to take classes at the Minneapolis School of Art. He later moved to New York City in 1955.
Rosenquist started by painting signs on billboard advertisements in Times Square and other public places. He later incorporated images from popular culture, such as celebrities and consumer goods into his work. He is well known for his large-scale, fragmented works that bring the visual language of commercial painting onto canvas
Rosenqiust’s paintings very rarely contained overt political messages, although his best known work, “F-111”, was made in 1964 and 1965 in part as a protest against american militarism. The image is of a modern fighter plane stretching 86 feet across a grid of fifty one canvas’ and aluminum panels,is interrupted by images of an enormous tire, a beach umbrella, a mushroom cloud, spaghetti and tomato sauce, as well as a little girl under a chrome hair dryer that resembles a warhead.
In his later years he spent much of his time in Aripeka, FL, just Northwest of Tampa. Here is where he kept a home and studio until 2009, when a catastrophic fire destroyed the properties. Rosenquist then returned to his home in New York City where he would spend the rest of his days.
Artist James Rosenquist, a key figure in the Pop Art movement, died on March 31st, 2017 at his home in New York City after a long illness.
“Derriere L’Etoile” (left) and “Violent Turn” (right) are a part of the same suite. Both of these works are on display at Gallery Art in Aventura. You can also view more works by James Rosenquist by visiting us at GallArt.com